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1.       The genotype controls for phenotype. However, the phenotype or the physical traits of an animal is not only affected by the genotype. How a phenotype is expressed is also affected by the environment.

a.        For example a sheep by have a large coat of wool because his/her parents did and that was a trait passed down to their offspring but there is another factor that plays a role. The environment that the sheep developed in could have affected the size of its coat. There could have been more grass in its environment that it could have fed on which made it possible for the sheep to be healthier and have a larger coat.

b.      In the same way the planarians environment can affect it. When the planarian senses that it’s in a safe environment with enough substances to sustain itself and off springs than a chemical reaction will occur that causes it to cut itself in half. Such a reaction can be simulated in a lab by cutting the planarian in half with a sharp instrument.   

2.       In many organisms – after the fertilization phase and before the blastula phase there is a short time period that the cell could be cut in half, fourths, etc. and make identical twins with exact DNA. It might be possible that planarian can regenerate an exact copy of themselves because there cells are similar to this simple cell phase after fertilization. As it is understood – planarians are very simple creatures and it might be that they live or survive in a perpetual state of possible cell division.

3.       Going of the theory speculated in the second question – cell signaling in planarian to regenerate a wound might be similar to how fertilized eggs or diploid cells regenerate themselves during the life cycle and during the cleavage phase. First the cells might sense the wound – and going by the idea that planarian are in a perpetual state of cleavage – the cells around the wound would divide and then differentiate. They will differentiate into any kind of cell that is missing at the wound site.

a

Friday Night Fever: A Look at the Swift Change of American Culture in the 1970's


Friday Night Fever: A Look at the Swift Change of American Culture in the 1970'sCollapse )

Civil Rights, Black Power, White Supremacy and Hollywood Fictionalization   

Title: In the Heat of the Night

Director: Norman Jewison

Cast:

Sidney Poitier as Detective Virgil Tibbs

Rod Steiger as Police Chief Bill Gillespie

Warren Oates as Sergeant Sam Wood

Lee Grant as Mrs. Leslie Colbert

Larry Gates as Eric Endicott

James Patterson as Lloyd Purdy

William Schallert as Mayor Webb Schubert

Beah Richards as Mama Caleba

Peter Whitney as CPL. George Courtney

Kermit Murdock as H.E. Henderson

Larry D. Mann as Watkins

Quentin Dean as Delores Purdy

Anthony James as Ralph Henshaw

Arthur Malet as Ted Ulam

Scott Wilson as Harvey Oberst

Matt Clark as Packy Harrison

Eldon Quick as Charlie Hawthorne

Jester Hairston as Henry


Civil Rights, Black Power, White Supremacy and Hollywood Fictionalization Collapse )

The 1950's: Consumerism and the American Dream
Title: Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?
Director: Frank Tashlin
Cast:

ActorRole
Jayne MansfieldRita Marlowe
Tony RandallRockwell P. Hunter
Betsy DrakeJenny Wells
Joan BlondellViolet
John WilliamsIrving La Salle Jr.
Henry JonesHenry Rufus
Lili GentleApril Hunter
Mickey HargitayBobo Branigansky
Groucho MarxGeorge Schmidlap



The 1950'sCollapse )

 

Depression Era America and the Labor/Working Class: Musical Representation 
Movie: Gold Diggers
Director: Mervin LeRoy
Cast:




 
Depression Era American and the Labor/Working Class: Musical RepresenationCollapse )


Film Analysis: Heart of Humanity - Allen Holubar 
Book Critique: Give Me Liberty - Eric Foner


~ The Encompassing Power of Wartime Propaganda and American Film ~Collapse )



1. Why are children so significant to this film?
In the film "The Heart of Humanity" (1918) the running theme of children in the cross-hairs of war is important because they establish a moral reasoning to go to war and fight. The children are Belgium orphans which important for two reasons: (a) The American audience viewing this movie in 1918 are largely made up of Irish, Jewish and German immigrants - who were distrustful of the Allied forces. As Foner describes in "Give me Liberty" (723) - Jewish immigrants from Russia greatly disliked the government of Russia. The Irish immigrants disliked the English power and the German immigrants disliked fighting against their country of origin. Making the orphans Belgium established the idea of unity in war. It was trying to get across the idea that once at war the history of rivalries and past wars within allied countries must be forgotten because they were fighting for something more important - the lives of innocent children who - as orphans - no longer belonged to one country but were now the children of all allied countries. (b) Since the children were literally in the middle of the war American audiences were manipulated to perceive the enemy forces as pure evil. This was done by the treatment of the orphans by German soldiers. In one scene we see a German officer pouring milk onto the ground as the starving orphans watch in dismay. In one of the last scenes American audiences were treated to  Erich Von Stroheim - a German officer and the villain of the movie killing an orphan by throwing the toddler out the window. These scenes further the idea that American joining and fighting against the Germans was done out of moral reasons  - to stop the carnage that was occurring in every country that Germany overtook. As Foner described in "Give Me Liberty" American propaganda needed a source of evil that emphasized a reason to fight and that came in the form of the German nation as "barbaric Huns." (729)  
2. How are female roles represented in the film? Does WWI require a "new" type of woman?
The representation of women in the film and their place in WWI was very important because in the past and - as Foner explained (729) - specifically in the Civil War women found their place without much prompting as workers in the place of men who were fighting and as nurses for the forces. However, women who were part of the suffrage movement during WWI saw the inequalities that plagued American laws and morals. They refused to fight or help in American freedom overseas when they were denied basic freedoms in their own country by being denied the vote. "The Heart of Humanity" called out to these women by idealizing the Civil War-esque women as strong, courageous and sacrificing for freedom. They did this by constructing two types of women: the older female or mother who must give up their sons to a noble cause and pray that they fight or die for this cause. This representation is carried out by Widow Patricia - who throughout the movie feels the death of five of her sons who are fighting but in the end makes the resolution that they will live on in her heart and memory. This is important because it told the American female audience that without them the men who die in the war can some way live on so long as they accept that they died for a noble cause and as heroes. The second type of woman that the film propagates to is the young women who must take a more active role in the war - like the women during the Civil War. They must become workers or nurses and help the war effort. This type of woman is seen through Nanette - who is in many ways the star of the film. When her husband is drafted into the war she finds her place by becoming a nurse in Belgium and taking care of Belgium orphans. Throughout the movie she is portrayed as strong and moral. In the middle of a battle field she sees a wounded German soldier crying out for help and like any moral women tries to comfort him and give him water. Later on we see Nanette running through a town that is in the midst of battle to save orphans that were left at the shelter. It is in one of these scenes that audiences perceive what a strong woman must be during this time of war. A German officer tries to rape but instead of succumbing to such a fate she chooses to take her own life by stabbing herself. However, she lives and takes many of the orphans to safety. It is in this pivotal scene that both the older women and the younger women are seen together - circled around orphaned children.  Ninette tells these women that for each child they lost in the war to take one of the orphans that the war has made and treat them as their own child. This scene is important because it reminds the female audience that they must not see the war through their own suffering but the suffering of nations that must unite to help the innocent and defenseless. 
3. Do you think this was an effective propaganda film? Why or why not?
As a viewer of this film ninety-four year after it was first released I cannot not fully speak for the audience members it was truly attended for but through analyzing the majority of the audience that this film was created for I believe that it was an effective propaganda film. The majority of Americans working class or laborers - many were immigrants - including over nine millions German immigrants (Foner, 738). The film was successful in demonizing the German as a barbarian that would murder children and rape women. This film was effective in shaming the German immigrants into American homogeneity and patriotism for the United States. More so I thought that the film effectively reached out to the female audience in calling them back into the patriotism of the Civil War female. Foner described the new type of woman that was fighting for the vote in the suffrage movement -  a woman that was well educated and part of the political parties and policies. However, the majority of the women in the United States were not educated or part of any political party. However, the were the women who watched propaganda film like this and would sign up to help in the war effort. In this aspect I think "Heart of Humanity" (1918) this an effective job of manipulating these women.
4. Why did the five Patricia brothers have to die?
 The death of all five Patricia brothers throughout the film was important an many levels. As Foner described (Give Me Liberty, 727) The Selective Service Act of 1917 drafted over five million American to fight in WWI. By 1918 the casualty rate of WWI one was sixty-five million - making it the fifth most deadliest war of it's time. In a way the film served to both idealize and to normalize the death of the armed forces and of sons, fathers and husbands. The audience slowly watches as all of Widow Patricia's sons die. We see frames cutting from a dieing Patricia son kissing the flag to  his mother clutching her heart as she feels him die. However, the war itself is never accused of being at fault for this but the enemy and more specifically the Germans. As Foner pointed out (Give Me Liberty, 732) propaganda influences extreme patriotism in everyday citizens. People accused of being unpatriotic were forced to submissively kiss the flag - encompassing ideas of unity during war and loss of individual freedom. In the film when the dieing Patricia son kisses the flag it becomes the ultimate sign of patriotism via propaganda - even in his dieing moment the young Patricia son is not allowed to be a person but a soldier - giving his life for a moral war. The Widow Patricia as an older woman and mother must bear and accept the lost of  her son for the cause of war.   
5. How is religion represented in the film?
Religion in this film in many ways was used to control patriotism. As Foner explained (Give Me Liberty, 728) antiwar sentiment was driven by ver liberal groups like the Socialist Party - who were largely made up of Eastern European immigrants - including Germans. During the war propaganda manipulated Americans into seeing Germans as Godless barbarians These ideas made the war seem very black and white. Those who were antiwar were Godless and unpatriotic - no better than the German office in the movie who tried to rape a woman and killed a defenseless orphan. Then there were those who were pro-war, God fearing women and soldiers - those who would die for their country, sacrifice their children and who would put their own lives in danger to save orphans. Near the ending of the film Widow Patricia describes how the death of her sons was not in vain but how they would live forever in her and with God. However, such a declaration everlasting life in God and Heaven seem like an after thought and unneeded since the majority of the audience and American were already some denomination of Catholic/Christian/Protestant/Jewish - who already had such beliefs about death and eternal life. 
6. What would an audience think of Germans after viewing this film?
After viewing this film the American audiences - some German immigrants themselves - would probably feel a myriad of emotions concerning the German nation. Some audiences might have taken the villainous German officers at face value and believe that the entirety of the German society were cruel and war-like. However, others would also know that not all Germans could be such evil caricatures since they lived or worked close to German immigrants most days. Some might have believed that during wartime that German's are fiercer and crueler. However, as Foner explained (Give Me Liberty, 738) there was a lot of propaganda at the time which had anti-German sentiment. If American society was barraged with visuals and speeches that portrayed the German culture as unsavory and evil than it would be a lot easier to believe a film that has such portrayals. German immigrants after viewing the film possibly felt shamed by their own culture and fearful that if they didn't homogenize that their neighbors and employees would think they were similar to the German caricatures portrayed in propaganda. 
7. What does the film reveal about American culture during WWI?
What "Heart of Humanity" (1918) reveals about American culture is a need for a common enemy polar from ourselves and the need to be the hero. In the movie the Germans were portrayed as the antithesis of everything moral and good. As Foner explained (Give Me Liberty, 729) the allied forces and specifically America needed a common enemy that were the complete opposite of themselves and they found that in the German nation. They needed to make the completely opposite to everything American stood for so they were completely othered - which would make the war easier to fight - if the enemy is completely different than ones self. To go along with that idea the film had a running motif of what was being fought for - what was good about the allied countries. The United States was fighting to uphold freedom and the morality of the country. Foner described (Give Me Liberty, 726) The Fourteen Points statement that Wilson issued in 1918. They outlined the righteous reasons and outcome for the war and how it was the Unites States job to restore peace. This is clearly seen in the film when by the end the American troops rush in and save the day. The Belgium and other soldiers cheer as the United States come in and fight the Germans. The main character Nanette - near death at the end of the movie - is saved by the troop of American soldiers. The United States and it's citizens needed to beleive that by entering the war the Unites States would be the hero who protected our allies from the evil Germans. 

Writer's Block: The state of perception

Taste because it's a evoutionary mutation that humans eated so we didn't accidently eat something that was poisonious. But since I'm never planning on living in the wilderness and all my food is labeled I don't need taste. The rest I do need. Sight and hearing makes it tons easier to be an independent human. It I couldn't feel anything I realistically shorten my life by almost half. If I was hemmeraging internally I wouldn't be able to feel it. If I had a glass stuck in my foot I would beable to feel it. Smell is important so I could smell smoke if something is on fire, food if it goes off before it's expiration date or if there is a dead animal under the floor boards.

Writer's Block: Stomach pains

If you had to participate in an eating contest, what food would you pick to eat?

Hot wings.